Blade (刃): The blade is the main part of the sword and is typically made of high carbon steel. The shape and length of the blade can vary depending on the purpose and type of the sword.
Handle (刀柄): The handle is the part that is gripped and is usually made of wood, wrapped with fish skin and cord for better grip. The end of the handle typically has a metal ring called a "tsuba."
Scabbard (刀鞘): The scabbard is the protective casing for the blade, typically made of wood and wrapped with fish skin and cord. The end of the scabbard usually has a metal ring called a "koiguchi."
Copper ornaments (銅包)：The handle of a samurai sword often has copper ornaments, known as "tsuba." These ornaments enhance the aesthetic appeal of the sword and provide additional protection when gripping it.
Copper handguard (銅鉤): The handguard is the part located between the handle and the blade, usually made of copper. Its purpose is to protect the hand of the wielder and can also be used to hang the sword from a belt.